Date: December 20, 1995
Time: 21:38
Location: Near Buga, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Operator: American Airlines
Flight #: 965
Route: Miami - Cali
AC Type: Boeing B-757-223
Registration: N651AA
cn / ln: 24609/390
Aboard: 164   (passengers:156  crew:8)
Fatalities: 160   (passengers:152  crew:8)
Ground: 0
Summary: While on a flight from Miami, FL to Cali, Columbia the aircraft crashed into Mt. El Deluvio 38 miles north of Cali while attempting to land. On approach, the crew was requested to report over Tulua VOR which they already passed. This confused them and they decided to go direct to Rozo beacon. Entering the abbreviation "R", incorrectly steered the plane towards Bogota. More than a minute into the turn the crew steered manually toward Cali, but this now took them into the path of a mountain. Crew error. Lack of situational awareness, failure to adequately plan and execute the approach, failure to realize that the FMS had turned the aircraft toward mountains. Crew also neglected to retract the speed brakes after the Ground Proximity Warning System alert. Lack of adequate radar. Different Flight Management System naming convention from that published in navigational charts.

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